The synthesis of ovalbumin mRNA sequences was studied in isolated nuclei from hen oviduct. Two different methods of analysis were used to distinguish in vitro synthesized from preexisting mRNA sequences: (i) Mercurated ribonucleotides were used for in vitro RNA synthesis, and the newly synthesized RNA was purified by chromatography on sulfhydryl-agarose and hybridized to radioactive ovalbumin cDNA. (ii) [3H]UTP was used to label the in vitro synthesized RNA. Hybridization to unlabeled mercurated cDNA, RNase A digestion, and subsequent purification of the hybrids on SH-agarose allowed the quantitation of newly synthesized ovalbumin mRNA sequences. Approximately 0.1% of the newly synthesized RNA was identified as ovalbumin RNA by both methods. The synthesis of ovalbumin RNA progressed during the incubation of nuclei and was sensitive to actinomycin D and low concentrations of alpha-amanitin. The preferential in vitro transcription of the ovalbumin gene (1000-fold over random transcription of the chicken genome) by RNA polymerase B (nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 188.8.131.52) suggests that the specificity of in vitro RNA synthesis is retained in isolated nuclei.