In this paper, a time-domain adaptive filtering-based melody extraction method is proposed. The proposed method works in multiple stages to extract the vocal melody (singer’s fundamental frequency) from vocal polyphonic music signals. The vocal and non-vocal regions of the music signal are identified by the strength of excitation of the source signal. The vocal regions are further segmented into the sequence of notes by detecting their onsets in the frequency representation of the composite signal. The melody contour in each of the vocal note segment is obtained by adaptive zero-frequency filtering in the time domain. The performance of the proposed melody extraction method is compared with the current state-of-the-art melody extraction method in respect of voicing recall rate, voicing false alarm rate, raw pitch, and overall accuracy.