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Predictors of successful weight loss with relative maintenance of fat-free mass in individuals with overweight and obesity on an 8-week low-energy diet.

Authors
  • Hansen, Thea Toft1
  • Hjorth, Mads Fiil1
  • Sandby, Karoline1
  • Andersen, Sarah Vold1
  • Astrup, Arne1
  • Ritz, Christian1
  • Bulló, Mònica2, 3
  • Camacho-Barcía, Maria Lucia2, 3
  • García-Gavilán, Jesús Francisco2, 3
  • Salas-Salvadó, Jordi2, 3
  • Harrold, Joanne A4
  • Halford, Jason C G4
  • Sjödin, Anders1
  • 1 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Section for Obesity Research, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Copenhagen, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 2 Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Rovira i Virgili University, 43201 Reus, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 3 CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 4 Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK.
Type
Published Article
Journal
British Journal Of Nutrition
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Publication Date
Aug 28, 2019
Volume
122
Issue
4
Pages
468–479
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114519001296
PMID: 31242952
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

A low-energy diet (LED) is an effective approach to induce a rapid weight loss in individuals with overweight. However, reported disproportionally large losses of fat-free mass (FFM) after an LED trigger the question of adequate protein content. Additionally, not all individuals have the same degree of weight loss success. After an 8-week LED providing 5020 kJ/d for men and 4184 kJ/d for women (84/70 g protein/d) among overweight and obese adults, we aimed to investigate the relationship between protein intake relative to initial FFM and proportion of weight lost as FFM as well as the individual characteristics associated with weight loss success. We assessed all outcomes baseline and after the LED. A total of 286 participants (sixty-four men and 222 women) initiated the LED of which 82 % completed and 70 % achieved a substantial weight loss (defined as ≥8 %). Protein intake in the range 1·0-1·6 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for men and 1·1-2·2 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for women was not associated with loss of FFM (P = 0·632). Higher Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) hunger at baseline and reductions in TFEQ disinhibition and hunger during the LED were associated with larger weight loss (all P ≤ 0·020); whereas lower sleep quality at baseline predicted less successful weight loss using intention to treat analysis (P = 0·021), possibly driven by those dropping out (n 81, P = 0·067 v. completers: n 198, P = 0·659). Thus, the protein intakes relative to initial FFM were sufficient for maintenance of FFM and specific eating behaviour characteristics were associated with weight loss success.

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