Fecal indicator organisms are measured to indicate the presence of fecal pollution, yet the association between indicators and pathogens varies by context. The goal of this study was to empirically evaluate the relationships between indicator Escherichia coli, microbial source tracking markers, select enteric pathogen genes, and potential sources of enteric pathogens in 600 rural Bangladeshi households. We measured indicators and pathogen genes in stored drinking water, soil, and on mother and child hands. Additionally, survey and observational data on sanitation and domestic hygiene practices were collected. Log10 concentrations of indicator E. coli were positively associated with the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli genes in all sample types. Given the current need to rely on indicators to assess fecal contamination in the field, it is significant that in this study context indicator E. coli concentrations, measured by IDEXX Colilert-18, provided quantitative information on the presence of pathogenic E. coli in different sample types. There were no significant associations between the human fecal marker (HumM2) and human-specific pathogens in any environmental sample type. There was an increase in the prevalence of Giardia lamblia genes, any E. coli virulence gene, and the specific E. coli virulence genes stx1/2 with every log10 increase in the concentration of the animal fecal marker (BacCow) on mothers' hands. Thus, domestic animals were important contributors to enteric pathogens in these households.