Osteoporosis is a major public health concern in Canada and worldwide. Although much is known about bone health in older adults, little is known about bone health in young, healthy Canadian men and women. The objectives of this research were to describe bone mineral density (BMD) of young, healthy adults living in southern Ontario, Canada, and to identify predictors of BMD in this population. Two-hundred and fifty-eight Caucasian men and women aged 18-33 years completed health and physical activity questionnaires along with a calcium and vitamin D specific food frequency questionnaire. Height and mass were measured. BMD of the total hip, femoral neck, spine, and total body was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body mass, weight-bearing physical activity, and calcium intake were significant predictors of BMD. Among women, body mass, calcium intake, and family history of osteoporosis significantly predicted log BMD. The predictors of BMD in young Canadian men and women identified in this study may inform the development of longitudinal studies designed to examine the influence of lifestyle factors on BMD in young adults.