To construct a model with the indices obtained by echocardiography to predict whether patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was required to be treated with pharmacologic treatment or surgical ligation, we performed a prospective observational study, including all neonates with gestational age ≤ 30 weeks and assessed the hemodynamics of PDA by serial daily echocardiography examination at postnatal age of 0–12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. The infants were classified in two groups based on whether they were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or surgical ligation to close the PDA from the second week after birth. We compared the echocardiographic indices between the two groups and utilized the indices to construct a model to predict which premature infants’ PDA requires intervention. The results showed that a total of forty-two preterm infants were enrolled in the study. 15 (35.7%) preterms were in the intervention group and 27 (64.3%) preterms were in the non-intervention group. Compared with the non-intervention group, the intervention group had a higher proportion of left ventricular volume overload and systemic shunt effect. In addition, the combined indicators of PDA size/weight > 3.2 mm/kg and LA/Ao > 1.4 at postnatal age of 72 h had a highest value to predict whether PDA requires intervention. These findings denoted that serial daily echocardiographic assessment can be useful in predicting whether a PDA will be closed with NSAIDs and/or surgical ligation in preterm infants with gestational age ≤ 30 weeks. Trial registration Number : IRB No. 2018-IRB-073. Date: 2018/09/21, retrospectively registered.