BackgroundIn patients presenting with limited nodal recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) results might improve with a better case selection.MethodsSingle-institution retrospective analysis of patients presenting with 1–3 lymph node (LN) recurrences (N1 or M1a) on 18F-Choline PET/CT. Prior therapy included radical prostatectomy (RP) ± salvage radiotherapy (RT), in absence of any systemic therapy.Outcome parameters were biochemical response (BR), time to biochemical recurrence (TBR) and time interval between SBRT and androgen deprivation therapy start (TADT). Time to event endpoints was analysed using Kaplan-Meier method. Potential prognostic factors were examined using univariate proportional hazards regression for TADT and logistic regression for BR. The optimal cut-off point for LN size was calculated using the Contal and O’Quigley method.Results25 patients fulfilling study criteria were treated with SBRT from January 2010 to January 2015 and retrospectively analysed. Median follow up was 18 months and median LN diameter 10.5 mm. SBRT was delivered to a median dose of 36 Gy in three fractions (range: 30–45 Gy). BR was reached in 52% of cases. Median TBR was 11.9 months and significantly longer in patients with larger LN (Hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87, P = 0.03). Using 14 mm as cut off for LN, median TBR was 10.8 months for patients with small LN (18 patients), and 21.2 months for patients with large LN (6 patients) (P unadjusted = 0.009; P adjusted = 0.099). ADT was started in 32% of patients after a median follow-up of 18 months.ConclusionsFor PCa patients with 1–3 LN recurrence after RP (± salvage RT), SBRT might result in a better biochemical control when delivered to larger sized (≥ 14 mm) LN metastases. This study is hypothesis generating and results should be tested in a larger prospective trial.