Two quantitative pKa prediction models for aliphatic carboxylic acids and for alcohols were developed by multiple linear-regression (MLR) analysis with empirical atomic descriptors. The acid and alcohol molecules were described by a set of five and four atomic descriptors, respectively. For the pKa model of 1122 aliphatic carboxylic acids, the squared correlation coefficient is 0.813 with a standard error of prediction of 0.423; for the pKa model of 288 alcohols, the squared correlation coefficient is 0.817 with a standard error of prediction of 0.755, respectively. The good predictive abilities of the models obtained were indicated by both cross-validation and by external validation. An atomic descriptor was developed to model the inductive effect of the neighboring atoms for a central atom in a molecule. The ability of the descriptor to measure the inductive effect of substituent groups was demonstrated by a good correlation of this descriptor with Taft sigma* constants in aliphatic carboxylic acids. It provides a new approach to estimate Taft sigma* constants directly from molecular structures. An algorithm using Kohonen neural networks for splitting a data set into a training set and a test set is also presented.