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(Bio)Sensing Strategies Based on Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Carbon Nanocomposites for Pharmaceuticals: Towards Greener Electrochemical Tools.

Authors
  • Torrinha, Álvaro1
  • Oliveira, Thiago M B F2
  • Ribeiro, Francisco W P3
  • de Lima-Neto, Pedro4
  • Correia, Adriana N4
  • Morais, Simone1
  • 1 REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal. , (Portugal)
  • 2 Centro de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Cariri, Av. Tenente Raimundo Rocha, 1639, Cidade Universitária, Juazeiro do Norte 63048-080, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 3 Instituto de Formação de Educadores, Universidade Federal do Cariri, Rua Olegário Emídio de Araújo, S/N, Centro, Brejo Santo 63260-000, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 4 Centro de Ciências, Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Bloco 940, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza 60440-900, Brazil. , (Brazil)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nanomaterials
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jul 11, 2022
Volume
12
Issue
14
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/nano12142368
PMID: 35889592
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The interaction of carbon-based nanomaterials and ionic liquids (ILs) has been thoroughly exploited for diverse electroanalytical solutions since the first report in 2003. This combination, either through covalent or non-covalent functionalization, takes advantage of the unique characteristics inherent to each material, resulting in synergistic effects that are conferred to the electrochemical (bio)sensing system. From one side, carbon nanomaterials offer miniaturization capacity with enhanced electron transfer rates at a reduced cost, whereas from the other side, ILs contribute as ecological dispersing media for the nanostructures, improving conductivity and biocompatibility. The present review focuses on the use of this interesting type of nanocomposites for the development of (bio)sensors specifically for pharmaceutical detection, with emphasis on the analytical (bio)sensing features. The literature search displayed the conjugation of more than 20 different ILs and several carbon nanomaterials (MWCNT, SWCNT, graphene, carbon nanofibers, fullerene, and carbon quantum dots, among others) that were applied for a large set (about 60) of pharmaceutical compounds. This great variability causes a straightforward comparison between sensors to be a challenging task. Undoubtedly, electrochemical sensors based on the conjugation of carbon nanomaterials with ILs can potentially be established as sustainable analytical tools and viable alternatives to more traditional methods, especially concerning in situ environmental analysis.

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