Somatic mutations are not distributed randomly throughout Ab V region genes. A sequence-specific target bias is revealed by a defined hierarchy of mutability among di- and trinucleotide sequences located within Ig intronic DNA. Here we report that the di- and trinucleotide mutability preference pattern is shared by mouse intronic JH and Jkappa clusters and by human VH genes, suggesting that a common mutation mechanism exists for all Ig V genes of both species. Using di- and trinucleotide target preferences, we performed a comprehensive analysis of human and murine germline V genes to predict regional mutabilities. Heavy chain genes of both species exhibit indistinguishable patterns in which complementarity-determining region 1 (CDR1), CDR2, and framework region 3 (FR3) are predicted to be more mutable than FR1 and FR2. This prediction is borne out by empirical mutation data from nonproductively rearranged human VH genes. Analysis of light chain genes in both species also revealed a common, but unexpected, pattern in which FR2 is predicted to be highly mutable. While our analyses of nonfunctional Ig genes accurately predicts regional mutation preferences in VH genes, observed relative mutability differences between regions are more extreme than expected. This cannot be readily accounted for by nascent mRNA secondary structure or by a supplemental gene conversion mechanism that might favor nucleotide replacements in CDR. Collectively, our data support the concept of a common mutation mechanism for heavy and light chain genes of mice and humans with regional bias that is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, accounted for by short nucleotide sequence composition.