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Predicting heavy metals uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grown in integrated industrial wastewater irrigated soils of Haridwar, India

Authors
  • Kumar, Vinod1
  • Thakur, Roushan K.1, 2
  • Kumar, Pankaj1
  • 1 Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, 249404, India , Haridwar (India)
  • 2 Roorkee Institute of Technology, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, 247667, India , Haridwar (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Oct 17, 2020
Volume
192
Issue
11
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-020-08673-9
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

This investigation aimed to assess the impacts of integrated industrial wastewater (IIW) irrigation on soil properties in the rural area of Haridwar, India, under cultivation of a leafy vegetable, i.e., spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Based on the field data of two cropping years (2016–2017 and 2017–2018), soil characteristics-based prediction models were developed to evaluate heavy metals (HM) uptake by spinach tissues (roots and leaves) using the multivariate regression method. The results showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the growth and productivity of spinach plants in IIW irrigated soils as compared to normal borewell water irrigation. For the prediction models, soil parameters including pH, organic matter (%), and HM (mg/Kg) availability showed a significant effect on the HM absorption process by spinach tissues. Besides this, the models were tested using ANOVA (P < 0.001), Student’s t test, model efficiency (> 0.50), and coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.81) tools. Furthermore, the prediction models were also verified for their applicability in the 2018–2019 cropping year which gave satisfactory outcomes. The findings of this investigation are important in terms of predicting hazardous HM accumulation in the vegetable crops being grown in wastewater irrigated soils.

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