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A Precuneal Causal Loop Mediates External and Internal Information Integration in the Human Brain.

Authors
  • Lyu, Dian1, 2
  • Pappas, Ioannis1, 3
  • Menon, David K1, 4
  • Stamatakis, Emmanuel A5, 2
  • 1 University Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0SP, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 2 Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0SP, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 3 Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.
  • 4 Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 5 University Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0SP, United Kingdom [email protected] , (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Neuroscience
Publisher
Society for Neuroscience
Publication Date
Oct 20, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0647-21.2021
PMID: 34675087
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Human brains interpret external stimuli based on internal representations. One untested hypothesis is that the default-mode network (DMN), widely considered responsible for internally oriented cognition, can decode external information. Here, we posit that the unique structural and functional fingerprint of the precuneus (PCu) supports a prominent role for the posterior part of the DMN in this process. By analyzing the imaging data of 100 participants performing two attention-demanding tasks, we found that the PCu is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral subdivisions. We then conducted a comprehensive examination of their connectivity profiles and found that at rest, both the ventral PCu (vPCu) and dorsal PCu (dPCu; d/vPCu) are mainly connected with the DMN but also are differentially connected with internally oriented network (IoN) and externally oriented network (EoN). During tasks, the double associations between the d/vPCu and the IoN/EoN are correlated with task performance and can switch depending on cognitive demand. Furthermore, dynamic causal modeling (DCM) revealed that the strength and direction of the effective connectivity (EC) between d/vPCu is modulated by task difficulty in a manner potentially dictated by the balance of internal versus external cognitive demands. Our study provides evidence that the medial posterior part of the DMN may drive interactions between large-scale networks, potentially allowing access to stored representations for moment-to-moment interpretation of an ever-changing environment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe default-mode network (DMN) is widely known for its association with internalised thinking processes, e.g., spontaneous thoughts, which is the most interesting but least understood component in human consciousness. The precuneus (PCu), a posteromedial DMN hub, is thought to play a role in this but a mechanistic explanation has not yet been established. In this study we found that the associations between dorsal PCu (dPCu)/ventral PCu (dPCu) subdivisions and internally oriented network (IoN)/externally oriented network (EoN) are flexibly modulated by cognitive demand and correlate with task performance. We further propose that the recurrent causal connectivity between the ventral and dorsal PCu (d/vPCu) supports conscious processing by constantly interpreting external information based on an internal model, meanwhile updating the internal model with the incoming information. Copyright © 2021 the authors.

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