Environmental exposures such as nutrition during life stages with high developmental plasticity—in particular, the in utero period, infancy, childhood, and puberty—may have long-lasting influences on risk of chronic diseases, including obesity-related conditions that manifest as early as childhood. Yet, specific mechanisms underlying these relationships remain unclear. Here, we consider the study of ‘omics mechanisms, including nutrigenomics, epigenetics/epigenomics, and metabolomics, within a life course epidemiological framework to accomplish three objectives. First, we carried out a scoping review of population-based literature with a focus on studies that include ‘omics analyses during three sensitive periods during early life: in utero , infancy, and childhood. We elected to conduct a scoping review because the application of multi-‘omics and/or precision nutrition in childhood obesity prevention and treatment is relatively recent, and identifying knowledge gaps can expedite future research. Second, concomitant with the literature review, we discuss the relevance and plausibility of biological mechanisms that may underlie early origins of childhood obesity identified by studies to date. Finally, we identify current research limitations and future opportunities for application of multi-‘omics in precision nutrition/health practice.