Strain MPA-C3 was isolated by incubating arsenic-bearing sediments under anaerobic, mesophilic conditions in minimal media with acetate as the sole source of energy and carbon, and As(V) as the sole electron acceptor. Following growth and the respiratory reduction of As(V) to As(III), a yellow precipitate formed in active cultures, while no precipitate was observed in autoclaved controls, or in uninoculated media supplemented with As(III). The precipitate was identified by X-ray diffraction as alacranite, As8 S9 , a mineral previously only identified in hydrothermal environments. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain MPA-C3 is a member of the Deferribacteres family, with relatively low (90%) identity to Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809. The arsenate respiratory reductase gene, arrA, was sequenced, showing high homology to the arrA gene of Desulfitobacterium halfniense. In addition to As(V), strain MPA-C3 utilizes NO3(-), Se(VI), Se(IV), fumarate and Fe(III) as electron acceptors, and acetate, pyruvate, fructose and benzoate as sources of carbon and energy. Analysis of a draft genome sequence revealed multiple pathways for respiration and carbon utilization. The results of this work demonstrate that alacranite, a mineral previously thought to be formed only chemically under hydrothermal conditions, is precipitated under mesophilic conditions by the metabolically versatile strain MPA-C3.