RationaleThe abuse potential of opioids may be due to their reinforcing and rewarding effects, which may be attenuated by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists.ObjectiveThis study was conducted to measure the effects of opioid and NK1R blockade on the potentiation of brain stimulation reward (BSR) by morphine using the intracranial self-stimulation method.MethodsAdult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 15) were implanted with unipolar stimulating electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus and trained to respond for varying frequencies of rewarding electrical stimulation. The BSR threshold (θ0) and maximum response rate (MAX) were determined before and after intraperitoneal administration of saline, morphine (1.0–17.0 mg/kg), or the NK1R antagonists L-733,060 (1.0–17.0 mg/kg) and L-703,606 (1.0–17.0 mg/kg). In morphine antagonism experiments, naltrexone (0.1–1.0 mg/kg) or 10.0 mg/kg L-733,060 or L-703,606 was administered 15 min before morphine (1.0–10.0 mg/kg) or saline.ResultsMorphine dose-dependently decreased θ0 (maximum effect = 62% of baseline) and altered MAX when compared to saline. L-703,606 and L-733,060 altered θ0; 10.0 mg/kg L-733,060 and L-703,606, which did not affect θ0 or MAX, attenuated the effects of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg morphine, and 1.0 and 0.3 mg/kg naltrexone blocked the effects of 10.0 mg/kg morphine. Naltrexone given before saline did not affect θ0 or MAX.ConclusionsThe decrease in θ0 by morphine reflects its rewarding effects, which were attenuated by NK1R and opioid receptor blockade. These results demonstrate the importance of substance P signaling during limbic reward system activation by opioids.