The cardiovascular effects induced by the daytime administration of melatonin (1 mg) were compared to those of placebo in 12 young women. In order to eliminate cardiovascular effects due to fluctuating endogenous sex steroids, all women were taking a fixed dose of monophasic contraceptive pill. In comparison to placebo, the administration of melatonin reduced, within 90 min, the pulsatility index of the internal carotid artery, evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound (P < 0.01), as well as both systolic and diastolic blood pressure evaluated in supine position (P < 0.01). Supine catecholamine levels were not significantly modified, but norepinephrine levels evaluated after 5 min of standing position were significantly reduced (P < 0.02). These data suggest that in women the administration of 1 mg of melatonin may exert beneficial effects on blood vessels.