Neutrophils represent the first line of innate immunity and are the most prominent line of cellular defence against invading microorganisms. On stimulation, they can quickly move through the walls of veins and into the tissues of the body to immediately attack or monitor the foreign antigens. Neutrophils are highly versatile and sophisticated cells which are endowed with highly sensitive receptor-based perception systems. They were traditionally classified as short-lived phagocytes actively involved during infection and inflammation, but recently, it has been seen that neutrophils are capable of detecting the presence of sperms during insemination as well as an implanting embryo in the female reproductive tract. These specialised phagocytes play a major role in tissue remodelling and wound healing, and maintain homeostasis during parturition, expulsion of placenta, folliculogenesis, corpus luteum formation and luteolysis. Here, we review the role played by neutrophils in maintaining homeostasis during normal and inflammatory conditions of dairy cattle. We have summarised the alteration in the expression of some cell adhesion molecules and cytokines on bovine neutrophils during different physiological and physiopathological conditions. Some emerging issues in the field of neutrophil biology and the possible strategies to strengthen their activity during the period of immunosuppression have also been discussed.