Background: Biotechnology is rapidly developing on a global scale. However, some evidence indicates that Eastern European (EE) countries are not fulfilling their potential in this field. Objectives: This paper aims to examine whether selected EE countries are able to develop a strong biotechnology industry. Potential investment approaches and the existing but not used or neglected infrastructures in EE countries were also examined. Methods/approach: In order to determine biotechnological activities in EE countries, indicators such as intellectual property protection, venture capital availability, published scientific publications as well as other indicators were analyzed. These indicators were compiled and compared between EE countries and regions with a rich and diverse biotechnological business sector. Results: The results suggest an underdeveloped biotechnology business sector in EE countries, with talented but unexploited scientists and unutilized infrastructure. The systematic drawbacks of EE countries lead to a hostile investment environment. Conclusions: The findings make a significant contribution to understanding how the biotechnology industry in EE countries is structured and how investments can be rationally placed. EE countries need to adapt their venture capital market for biotechnology ventures. Several changes in regulations could have a large impact on biotechnology investments.