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Potential Antioxidative, Anti‐inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Ghrelin, an Endogenous Peptide from the Stomach in SARS-CoV2 Infection

Authors
  • Jafari, Abbas1
  • Sadeghpour, Sonia1
  • Ghasemnejad-Berenji, Hojat2
  • Pashapour, Sarvin1
  • Ghasemnejad-Berenji, Morteza1, 1
  • 1 Urmia University of Medical Sciences,
  • 2 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Apr 16, 2021
Pages
1–9
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10989-021-10217-9
PMID: 33880115
PMCID: PMC8050636
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

The current COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most devastating events in recent history. The respiratory effects of this disease include acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammation, cytokine storm, and pulmonary fibrosis. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by the stomach. Interestingly, ghrelin possesses promising antioxidant, anti-and inflammatory effects, making it an attractive agent to reduce the complications of the SARS-CoV-2. In addition, ghrelin exerts a wide range of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and can mitigate the uncontrolled cytokine production responsible for acute lung injury by upregulating PPARγ and down-regulating NF-κB expression. Ghrelin has also been reported to enhance Nrf2 expression in inflammatory conditions which led to the suppression of oxidative stress. The current opinion summarizes the evidence for the possible pharmacological benefits of ghrelin in the therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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