Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in the Ataxin1 ( ATXN1 ) gene. SCA1 is characterized by motor deficits, cerebellar neurodegeneration, gliosis and gene expression changes. Expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), growth factor important for the survival and function of cerebellar neurons is decreased in ATXN1[82Q] mice, the Purkinje neuron specific transgenic mouse model of SCA1. As this decrease in BDNF expression may contribute to cerebellar neurodegeneration we tested whether delivery of extrinsic human BDNF via osmotic Alzet pumps has a beneficial effect on disease severity in this mouse model of SCA1. Additionally, to test the effects of BDNF on established and progressing cerebellar pathogenesis and motor deficits we delivered BDNF post-symptomatically. We have found that post-symptomatic delivery of extrinsic BDNF ameliorated motor deficits, and cerebellar pathology (i.e. dendritic atrophy of Purkinje cells, and astrogliosis) indicating therapeutic potential of BDNF even after the onset of symptoms in SCA1.However, BDNF did not alter Purkinje cell gene expression changes indicting that certain aspects of disease pathogenesis cannot be ameliorated/slowed down with BDNF and that combinational therapies may be needed.