An adult male cynomolgous macaque (Macaca fascicularis) died suddenly after anesthesia for a positron emission tomography scan. Bacteriologic culture of the mucopurulent secretions recovered from the endotracheal tube yielded heavy growth of Pseudomonas putida, a known endotoxin producer. Histologically, the lungs had severe, diffuse perivascular edema and neutrophils marginating to the endothelium. The sudden death and the pathologic findings were consistent with peracute endotoxic shock. Numerous environmental swab specimens of the surgical suite and equipment were submitted for bacteriologic culture, as were swab specimens of endotracheal secretions from a control animal; however, Pseudomonas putida was not isolated from any specimen. The animal in this report may have carried Pseudomonas putida as a commensal in the oropharynx, and the stress of anesthesia may have resulted in increased sensitivity to the endotoxin.