The occurrence of the postcholecystectomy syndrome is very often connected with inappropriate preoperative diagnostics. One of the reasons might be the presence of gastric or duodenal ulcer, what can be connected with peri- and late postoperative complications. The prospective analysis of 250 patients admitted to the Department because of cholelithiasis was performed. In 28.8% of cases endoscopical changes in the upper alimentary tract were recognized. That is why, in patients qualified for cholecystectomy the upper alimentary tract endoscopy should be performed.