The tendencies of the land fund change during the last years are considered. An analysis of a number of normative documents was made to highlight the main problems in modern land use. A number of problems in the sphere of land relations during the period of land reform are listed. The systematic deforestation of protective forest stands, violation of the regime of land use within the boundaries of water protection zones and coastal protective bands is observed. In the article, an acute need to implement measures for the use and protection of lands with a view to meeting the set tasks within the territories, which are subjected to significant anthropogenic load as a result of population accumulation and high intensity of land use is highlighted. The need for comprehensive measures to develop and implement technical solutions for the rationalization of land use and land protection is argued in the article. The evaluation of the distribution of agricultural enterprises by the average area of agricultural and the share of the total area of agricultural land in Ukraine, which they occupy is presented. The dynamics of changes in the areas of agricultural land and arable land in their composition, as well as pastures, hayfields, deposits, and perennial plantations is investigated.