A classical particle oscillating in an arbitrary high-frequency or static field effectively exhibits a modified rest mass m(eff) derived from the particle averaged Lagrangian. Relativistic ponderomotive and diamagnetic forces, as well as magnetic drifts, are obtained from the m(eff) dependence on the guiding center location and velocity. The effective mass is not necessarily positive and can result in backward acceleration when an additional perturbation force is applied. As an example, adiabatic dynamics with m||>0 and m||<0 is demonstrated for a wave-driven particle along a dc magnetic field, m|| being the effective longitudinal mass derived from m(eff). Multiple energy states are realized in this case, yielding up to three branches of m|| for a given magnetic moment and parallel velocity.