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Positive and negative effective mass of classical particles in oscillatory and static fields.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
Publication Date
Volume
77
Issue
3 Pt 2
Pages
36402–36402
Identifiers
PMID: 18517528
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

A classical particle oscillating in an arbitrary high-frequency or static field effectively exhibits a modified rest mass m(eff) derived from the particle averaged Lagrangian. Relativistic ponderomotive and diamagnetic forces, as well as magnetic drifts, are obtained from the m(eff) dependence on the guiding center location and velocity. The effective mass is not necessarily positive and can result in backward acceleration when an additional perturbation force is applied. As an example, adiabatic dynamics with m||>0 and m||<0 is demonstrated for a wave-driven particle along a dc magnetic field, m|| being the effective longitudinal mass derived from m(eff). Multiple energy states are realized in this case, yielding up to three branches of m|| for a given magnetic moment and parallel velocity.

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