Infections and inflammation in the genital tract can influence HIV expression or HIV susceptibility. The goal of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist between cytokines and HIV in genital tract secretions from 57 HIV-seropositive Rwandan women. Genital tract secretions were obtained by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). Ten different cytokines in CVL were measured by multiplex cytometric bead arrays. HIV RNA in CVL and plasma were measured by quantitative PCR. In univariate analysis, genital tract HIV RNA was significantly associated with plasma HIV RNA and several of the cytokines, while in multivariate analysis, genital tract HIV RNA was significantly associated only with plasma HIV RNA and IL-6. This association of IL-6 with HIV RNA levels suggests that IL-6 is an indicator for conditions that induce HIV expression and that IL-6 may contribute to induction of HIV expression in the genital tract.