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Porous starch citrate biopolymer for controlled release of carbofuran in the management of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

  • Fabiyi, Oluwatoyin Adenike1
  • Saliu, Oluwaseyi Damilare2, 3
  • Claudius-cole, Abiodun Olufunmilayo4
  • Olaniyi, Israel Olayiwola1
  • Oguntebi, Oreoluwa Victor1
  • Olatunji, Gabriel Ademola2
  • 1 Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
  • 2 Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
  • 3 Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
  • 4 Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Published Article
Biotechnology Reports
Publication Date
Jan 30, 2020
DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00428
PMID: 32071894
PMCID: PMC7016262
PubMed Central


The undesirable environmental impacts of inappropriate application of pesticides have brought about research into new matrices for controlled release of pesticides. Porous starch citrate biopolymer was designed for the release of carbofuran in this experiment and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) for functional group, surface morphology and thermal stability properties respectively. The SEM revealed highly stabilized porous starch citrate biopolymers with porous structures and gradients suitable for controlled release studies. The transmittance bands at 3347, 1714 and 1073 cm−1 for OH, CO and COC— 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 —— stretching vibrations further confirms the successful synthesis of the biopolymer. TGA showed an increase in the thermal stability after citric acid modification with one-step decomposition from 290 ᵒC to 500 ᵒC. From Korsemeyer-Peppas model, the carbofuran-porous starch citrate (CBFN/PRS/STH/CTRT) followed a lower diffusion release model with gradual increment in all the quantity of carbofuran loaded. An accelerated rate of diffusion percentage was seen in direct application of carbofuran. Egg hatch and mortality of juveniles were recorded on daily basis for seven days. Direct application of carbofuran (CBFN/DRT) and carbofuran-porous starch citrate biopolymer gave the best results with significant (p < 0.05) reduction in egg hatch and higher percentage mortality. The rate of release of carbofuran from the starch citrate bio polymer matrix was significantly lower than the direct application, and in spite of the slow rate of release, higher juvenile mortality and reduction in egg hatch was achieved.

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