A longitudinal study (1993-94) on malaria was conducted in Dungaria, a typical forest fringe tribal village in Mandla district of central India (Madhya Pradesh). Our initial objective was to obtain in-depth baseline data on malaria transmission in the tribal village to elucidate the factors responsible for persistent malaria in the area and thereby to help in formulating an improved malaria control program. Anopheles culicifacies Giles was the predominant vector of malaria, although Anopheles fluviatilis James were recorded in small numbers. The transmission season was from May to November. Analysis of the malaria cases revealed hyperendemic malaria, with Plasmodium falciparum the predominant species. The prevalence of Plasmodium vivax was mainly in the summer and that of P. falciparum in autumn. The study suggested that a number of factors were responsible for the continuation of malaria transmission in the village.