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Polysaccharide-Based Formulations for Healing of Skin-Related Wound Infections: Lessons from Animal Models and Clinical Trials

Authors
  • lima ribeiro, diogo marcelo
  • carvalho, alexsander rodrigues
  • henrique, gustavo
  • chagas, vitor lopes
  • silva, lucas dos santos
  • cutrim, brenda da silva
  • santos, deivid martins
  • lima soares, bruno luis
  • zagmignan, adrielle
  • mendonça de miranda, rita de cássia
  • sales de albuquerque, priscilla barbosa
  • nascimento da silva, luís cláudio
Publication Date
Dec 30, 2019
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Skin injuries constitute a gateway for pathogenic bacteria that can be either part of tissue microbiota or acquired from the environmental. These microorganisms (such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) produce virulence factors that impair tissue integrity and sustain the inflammatory phase leading for establishment of chronic wounds. The high levels of antimicrobial resistance have limited the therapeutic arsenal for combatting skin infections. Thus, the treatment of non-healing chronic wounds is a huge challenge for health services worldwide, imposing great socio-economic damage to the affected individuals. This scenario has encouraged the use of natural polymers, such as polysaccharide, in order to develop new formulations (membranes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, scaffolds) to be applied in the treatment of skin infections. In this non-exhaustive review, we discuss the applications of polysaccharide-based formulations in the healing of infected wounds in animal models and clinical trials. The formulations discussed in this review were prepared using alginate, cellulose, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid. In addition to have healing actions per se, these polysaccharide formulations can act as transdermal drug delivery systems, controlling the release of active ingredients (such as antimicrobial and healing agents). The papers show that these polysaccharides-based formulations are efficient in controlling infection and improve the healing, even in chronic infected wounds. These data should positively impact the design of new dressings to treat skin infections.

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