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Polyphenols of Frangula alnus and Peganum harmala Leaves and Associated Biological Activities

Authors
  • Elansary, Hosam O.1, 2
  • Szopa, Agnieszka3
  • Kubica, Paweł3
  • Ekiert, Halina3
  • Al-Mana, Fahed A.
  • El-Shafei, Ahmed A.4
  • 1 Floriculture, Ornamental Horticulture, and Garden Design Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
  • 2 Department of Geography, Environmental Management, and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, APK campus, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
  • 3 (H.E.)
  • 4 Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
Type
Published Article
Journal
Plants
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Aug 24, 2020
Volume
9
Issue
9
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/plants9091086
PMID: 32847047
PMCID: PMC7570311
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Frangula alnus and Peganum harmala populations growing in Saudi Arabia might be rich sources of natural compounds with important biological activities. A high performance liquid chromatography diode array revealed several polyphenols in the leaf extracts for the first time, including p -coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, quercitrin, rutoside, quercetin and trifolin in F. alnus; and hydrocaffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and cynaroside in P. harmala. F. alnus and P. harmala showed strong antioxidant effects attributed to the polyphenolic composition of leaves and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. F. alnus and P. harmala leaf extracts showed cytotoxic effects against Jurkat, MCF-7, HeLa, and HT-29 cancer cells using MTT and flow cytometry assays. These activities were attributed to the polyphenolic composition of leaves including quercitrin, trifolin and cymaroside, as well as the activation of caspase family enzymes 2, 6, 8 and 9 in treated cancer cells compared to control. The current findings of this study include a novel comprehensive investigation on the polyphenol composition and anticancer effects of leaf extracts of F. alnus and P. harmala from natural populations in Saudi Arabia.

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