Polymorphisms in a number of genes encoding for DNA repair enzymes have been associated with altering the function of these enzymes and increasing risk of a number of cancers, including colon cancer. We have investigated the association between a common variant in polynucleotide kinase 3' phosphatase (PNKP), a putative DNA repair enzyme, and risk of adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial participants. We also investigated possible interaction or effect modification between carriage of the variant allele, dietary components and risk of adenoma recurrence. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for an association between the G/T polymorphism, PNKP T5644G and risk of adenoma recurrence. We observed no association between carriage of the variant allele and risk of adenoma recurrence. Furthermore, we found no effect modification between genotype, dietary components and risk of adenoma recurrence. The PNKP T5644G variant does not seem to be involved in adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial.