Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal infectious neurodegenerative disease caused by the accumulation of pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the brain. In a recent study, the shadow of prion protein (Sho), encoded by the shadow of prion protein (SPRN) gene, accelerates the progression of prion diseases, and a 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the coding region of the SPRN gene is associated with susceptibility to atypical BSE-affected Polish cattle. To date, the genetic study of the SPRN gene in Korean cattle has not been performed. In this study, we investigated the genotype and allele frequencies of SPRN polymorphisms in 235 Hanwoo and 212 Holstein cattle and analyzed the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotypes of SPRN polymorphisms. In addition, we compared the distribution of the 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism between atypical BSE-diagnosed Polish cattle and Korean cattle to evaluate the susceptibility of atypical BSE. Furthermore, we estimated a deleterious effect of polymorphisms on the Sho protein using PROVEAN. We found a total of seven polymorphisms, including one novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), c.231G>A. We also found significantly different distributions of genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of seven polymorphisms between Hanwoo and Korean Holstein cattle. In addition, all polymorphisms showed strong LDs among the seven polymorphisms. Interestingly, Hanwoo cattle showed more potential susceptible distribution in the genotype and allele frequencies of the 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphisms of the SPRN gene than Holstein cattle. Finally, using PROVEAN, we found one novel deleterious nonsynonymous SNP to Sho protein, c.110G>C (G37A). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the SPRN gene in Korean cattle.