In this work, we studied the question of whether it is possible to develop a one-step approach for the creation of microphase-separated materials with long-range order with the help of spontaneous gradient copolymers, i.e., formed during controlled copolymerization solely due to the large difference in the reactivity ratios. To that end, we studied the polymerization-induced microphase separation in bulk on the example of a monomer pair with realistic parameters based on styrene (S) and vinylpirrolydone (VP) by means of computer simulation. We showed that for experimentally reasonable chain lengths, the structures with long-range order start to appear at the conversion degree as low as 76%; a full phase diagram in coordinates (fraction of VP—conversion degree) was constructed. Rather rich phase behavior was obtained; moreover, at some VP fractions, order–order transitions were observed. Finally, we studied how the conversion degree at which the order–disorder transition occurs changes upon varying the maximum average chain length in the system.