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Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants

Authors
  • Andrieu, Nadine1, 2, 3, 4
  • Noguès, Catherine5
  • 1 Inserm U900, Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer team, Paris, France , Paris (France)
  • 2 Institut Curie, Paris, France , Paris (France)
  • 3 Mines ParisTech, Fontainebleau, France , Fontainebleau (France)
  • 4 Department of Life & Health Sciences, PSL University, Paris, France , Paris (France)
  • 5 Oncogénétique Clinique and Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Département d’Anticipation et de Suivi des Cancers, Marseille, France , Marseille (France)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Genetics in Medicine
Publisher
Springer Nature
Publication Date
Jul 15, 2020
Volume
22
Issue
10
Pages
1653–1666
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1038/s41436-020-0862-x
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

PurposeWe assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.MethodsRetrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)–negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.ResultsThe ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25–1.33], P = 3×10−72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27–1.36], P = 7×10−50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25–1.40], P = 3×10−22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30–1.60], P = 4×10−12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.ConclusionPopulation-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

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