The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hyperandrogenic disorder and is characterized by a constellation of signs and symptoms often in association with a family history of hyperandrogenism and/or PCOS. It is often associated with hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance, which puts patients at risk for possible potential complications including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clinical signs may be subtle, and biochemical markers most often include an elevation of free testosterone (T) and possibly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The diagnosis should be sought in any woman with hyperandrogenic features so that appropriate treatment may be used. There is often a good therapeutic response of the hirsutism, acne, or oligomenorrhea associated with PCOS. The new modalities that increase insulin sensitivity as well as weight reduction in the obese woman with PCOS may potentially be useful in modifying the potential later complications of this common endocrinopathy of young adult women.