We investigated whether 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibitor, reduces bacterial translocation (BT) after intraperitoneal endotoxin administration. Wistar rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal saline (control, n = 6); endotoxin (n = 8); 3-AB (n = 6); and 3-AB plus endotoxin (n = 8). Six hours later, to evaluate the endotoxin-related intestinal injury and BT, tissue and blood samples were collected. Administration of intraperitoneal endotoxin caused severe intestinal injury and BT to mesenteric lymph nodes. PARS inhibition with 3-AB completely prevented endotoxin-induced BT. No colony-forming bacteria was isolated from the samples obtained from 3-AB-pretreated animals under endotoxin challenge. Treatment with 3-AB significantly reduced the endotoxin-induced intestinal mucosal injury. The inhibition of PARS by its blocker 3-aminobenzamide during endotoxemia prevents bacterial translocation and intestinal injury in rats. PARS activation may provide a novel therapeutic approach in reducing gut barrier failure seen in endotoxemia.