NGO，即非政府组织，十几年前在中国鲜为人知，如今在中国迅速发展。目前，NGO 的活动已遍及中国民众社会生活的各个领域。它们在缓解社会压力，促进公益事业发展、培养公益事业人才、影响政府政策等方面发挥了积极的作用。同时，也引起了中国政府和一些学者的注意和忧虑。 中国的 NGO 现象反映了国际公民社会建设潮流对中国的影响，也是中国社会发展到一定历史阶段的产物。云南被称为 NGO 的摇篮，云南 NGO 的发展是中国 NGO 发展的一个缩影。云南 NGO 的快速发展与云南的政治环境和社会条件有着密不可分的关系。 NGO 在中国的运作有其独特性。这是中国国情所决定的。NGO 在中国必须与政府紧密合作，获得政府的支持才能成功运转。NGO 在中国尚处于起步阶段。由于中国特殊的政治环境，NGO 在中国的发展还面临一系列的挑战。尽管如此，NGO 在中国还会继续发展。在这一发展过程中，NGO 还会与中国社会一起经历动荡和变化。 NGO 是中国建设和谐社会的一支重要力量。NGO 的发展将会使中国社会的民主政治建设走向一个新的历史阶段。但是，中国是一个政府控制的国家。非政府组织的诞生，发展和运作在这里需要有一个特殊的政治环境，包括法律环境，政策环境，组织环境和社会基础环境。能否适应中国的这种特殊政治环境，进而改进这种环境是 NGO 在中国发展的关键因素。換句话说，中国政府的政策和 NGO 的策略是 NGO 的生命线。 Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), common for decades throughout the world, were little known in China as recently as a dozen years ago, but they have developed and expanded exponentially in recent years. The activities of such organizations have penetrated all aspects of the Chinese social life. They have played a positive role in alleviating social pressures, promoting the development of public services, training social workers, and have, to various effect, influenced government policies. At the same time, they have aroused attention and concern among government officials and scholars. NGOs in China today reflect the international trend towards the development of what is described as civil society. They are also the product of decades of social development in China. Yunnan has been called the cradle of NGOs in China. The development of NGOs in Yunnan as a microcosm represents the apex of NGO development in China at the macro level. The rapid development of NGOs in Yunnan is dependent on a close relationship with evolving political and social conditions in both the province and the nation as a whole. NGOs in China have a distinctive character of their own, and that is what makes this study timely and relevant to the field of development studies as well as the evolving political development of China as a nation. NGOs can operate successfully in China only when they cooperate closely with, and obtain support from, the government. NGOs are still evolving in China, and their status is very much undecided and in flux. Despite the challenges ahead, this paper maintains that NGOs will continue to grow in China. But, in this process, NGOs will also confront many significant political and administrative hurdles. NGOs will prove an important force in the building of a harmonious society in China. Their development reflects a new historical phase in the promotion of evolving systems of government in the PRC. China, however, remains a state-controlled society, which maintains very different political, legal, and social policies than much of the world. The key to the development and survival of NGOs in China is how they can adapt themselves successfully to China's specific political and administrative environment. It is the nexus between government policy and NGO tactics that will decide the fate of NGOs in China.