The incidence and risk factors for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) recurrence were evaluated in 451 HIV-infected patients enrolled in the French Hospital Database on HIV who started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) while receiving secondary PCP prophylaxis after a first episode occurring between January 1995 and December 1998. There were 18 episodes of recurrent PCP. On HAART, the CD4+ cell count increased to above 200 x 106/L in 274 patients, 51 of whom stopped PCP prophylaxis. None of these patients had PCP recurrences during 363 person-years (PY) of follow-up after the CD4+ cell count had reached 200 x 106/L (incidence rate [IR], 0.00 cases/100 PY; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00-0.82), and 37 PY of follow-up after the CD4+ cell count had reached 200 x 106/L and PCP prophylaxis had been discontinued (IR, 0.00 cases/100 PY; 95% CI, 0.00-7.84). The CD4+ cell count remained < 200 x 106/L in 177 patients; 9 patients stopped PCP prophylaxis, and 6 of these had a disease recurrence. Multivariate Cox analysis (time censored when CD4+ cell count > 200 x 106/L) showed that discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis (relative hazard [RH], 25.95; p <.0001) was associated with recurrence, whereas higher CD4+ cell counts during follow-up (RH, 0.39/50 x 106/L increment; p <.002) were protective.