We observed 36 cases of pleuropulmonary staphylococcal infection (PPS) in infants aged 0 to 30 months, during a prospective study carried out between April 1st 1995 and March 31 1996 at the Pediatrics Department of Ouagadougou University Hospital. PPS accounted for 0.5% of all hospital admissions and 11.6% of all acute basal respiratory infections in children aged less than 30 months. Slightly more boys than girls were affected, with a sex ratio of 1.2. We identified the classic triad of symptoms: cough-fever-polypnea, associated with abdominal ballooning and a change in general condition. On X rays, the typical images showing parenchymatous bubbles were the second most frequent observation (27.8%) after parenchymatous opacities (69.5%). The most frequently used antibiotics were oxacillin (Bristopen), gentamycin (Gentallin) and cefuroxime-axetil (Zinnat). The prognosis of PPS is poor, with a high mortality rate (27.8%) and a risk of pleural recurrence. Being very young, late hospitalization, malnutrition and leukopenia were identified as factors indicating a poor prognosis. Recygling of health care personnel for the management of acute respiratory infections, a decrease in malnutrition and an improvement in vaccination cover are essential if the mortality and morbidity of acute respiratory infections, and PPS in particular, are to be reduced.