A 61-year-old man with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia developed megakaryoblastic leukemia. In the blast phase, his blast cells showed undifferentiated megakaryoblastic characteristics with no alpha-granules or demarcation membranes but with detectable platelet peroxidase (PPO) activity and surface glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa. The patient has remained reasonably well for at least 12 months after blastic crisis, and 6-mercaptopurine alone has been effective in controlling leukocytosis and megakaryoblast proliferation. The expression of mRNA for platelet-specific proteins, such as GPIIb and platelet factor 4 (PF4), was studied in the patient's blast cells by the Northern blot analysis. Both GPIIb and PF4 mRNA were detected in the blast cells. Cytoplasmic maturation occurs later than the synthesis of the surface GP during megakaryocyte maturation. Therefore, PF4 mRNA expression should be a marker of mature megakaryoblasts. The PF4 mRNA expression in megakaryoblastic leukemia may indicate that a patient will have long survival and a good response to chemotherapy.