Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a platelet alpha-granule protein. In previous reports, we demonstrated the expression of PDGF receptors on platelets and megakaryocytic cells and that PDGF enhanced the proliferation of megakaryocytic progenitor cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of PDGF on mRNA and protein expressions of megakaryocyte-associated transcription factors, c-Fos, GATA-1, NF-E2 and PU.1, in two human megakaryocytic cell lines CHRF-288-11 and DAMI. RT-PCR/Southern blot analysis and Real-time PCR demonstrated that PDGF increased the mRNA expression of c-Fos, GATA-1 and NF-E2, but not PU.1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The activation was confirmed at the protein level by Western blot analysis of both total cell and nuclear lysates. The addition of increasing concentrations of Tyrphostin AG1295, an inhibitor of PDGF receptor kinase, blocked the stimulatory effect of PDGF on the mRNA and protein expressions of these transcription factors. The up-regulation of c-Fos, GATA-1 and NF-E2 protein by PDGF was inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, suggesting that mRNA and protein synthesis might be involved in the mechanism. Our data suggest a direct stimulatory effect of PDGF on c-Fos, GATA-1 and NF-E2 expressions and we speculate that these transcription factors might be involved in the signal transduction of PDGF on the regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis.