Abnormal reestablishment of mossy fibers with the CA3 pyramidal cells and granule cells is an important aspect of postlesional plasticity in epilepsy. However, basis for the structural reorganisation and functional consequences of the event remain uncertain. Therefore we have investigated alterations of neurofilaments, major cytoskeletal components of neurons, in the rat hippocampus after the kainic acid (KA) administration, an experimental model for the temporal lobe epilepsy. The immunoreactivity for phosphorylated heavy weight neurofilament (pNFH) and non-phosphorylated heavy weight neurofilament (npNFH), in particular the pNFH, decreased in the CA1 field and inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus during 3 and 10 days after the KA administration. After 10 days, npNFH immunoreactivity appeared in the mossy fibers, in which it is normally absent, meanwhile the pNFH staining in the mossy fibers did not decrease. From day 21, the immunoreactivity of pNFH and npNFH was normal or above normal in the CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare, mossy fibers, hilus and inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. These alterations in the later phase remained at least to day 90. The reappearance and increase of the neurofilament immunoreactivity in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus probably reflects a collateral extension of the granule cell axons known as mossy fiber sprouting. The results suggest that neurofilament changes in the granule cell-mossy fiber system may be a morphological basis for the structural reconstruction of granule cell axons, and neurofilaments are involved in the plasticity after the KA induced seizures.