The presence of circulating Na+ pump inhibitors was investigated in hypertensive subjects using inhibition of ouabain binding to the pump and of Na+, K+-ATPase activity as tests. Plasma extracts from nearly half the normotensive subjects who were offspring of hypertensive parents as well as the essential hypertensive subjects were potent inhibitors. Three fractions, extracted from plasma, exhibited ouabain-like properties concerning competition for binding, inhibition of the Na+, K+-ATPase and of Na+-dependent serotonin uptake by platelets. When injected intracerebroventricularly, one of these fractions also induces a rise in blood pressure, as does ouabain. These results demonstrate the presence in some plasma of digitalis-like substances.