Adiponectin is an adipose-derived plasma protein. Recently the plasma adiponectin levels have been linked to most variables of metabolic syndrome (MS) and risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its relation with blood pressure is yet unclear. Here we report the relationship between the plasma adiponectin levels and blood pressures in 68 female adolescents (age 16.1 +/- 1.8 yr). We found that the plasma adiponectin levels correlated significantly with both the systolic blood pressure (SBP) (gamma = -0.47, P = 0.000) and diastolic blood pressure (gamma = -0.30, P = 0.014). In linear regression models with adjustment for age and the other anthropometric or metabolic factors, only the SBP, but not the diastolic blood pressure, was independently related to the plasma adiponectin levels. The mean plasma adiponectin levels between the subjects in the lowest quartile of SBP (SBP < or = 100 mm Hg) and those in the highest quartile (SBP > or = 118 mm Hg) were significantly different (P = 0.035). In conclusion, the SBP is inversely related to the plasma adiponectin independent of the other variables of the MS and other risk factors of CAD in healthy adolescent females. This further strengthens the potential roles of adiponectin in the pathophysiology of MS and CAD.