We aimed to investigate differential characteristics of plaque in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and hemodynamics in patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), and to develop a predictive model for the presence of ischemic stroke and neurological impairment. Sixty-seven patients with acute ischemic events in MCA territory who underwent high-resolution vessel wall imaging between September 2016 and August 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were assigned to either the stroke group or TIA group, according to diffusion-weighted imaging and neurological examination. Plaque characteristics and anterograde score (AnS) were calculated. Tmax > 6.0-s volume was acquired by RApid Processing of perfusIon and Diffusion software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to establish a predictive model for irreversible infarction occurrence and clinical severity. Forty-five patients were assigned to the stroke group, and 22 were assigned to the TIA group. Plaque length, intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), enhancement, AnS, and Tmax > 6.0-s volumes were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). IPH and AnS were independent predictors for patients with stroke (p = 0.020 and 0.034, respectively). Tmax > 6.0-s volume, IPH, hypertension, and AnS were associated with high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (all p < 0.05, R = 0.725, and adjusted R2 = 0.494). IPH and AnS are useful in predicting stroke occurrence. Tmax > 6.0-s volume, IPH, hypertension, and AnS are associated with neurological impairment of the patients. • Ischemic stroke and TIA patients have different plaque characteristics and hemodynamics. • Intraplaque hemorrhage and anterograde score have high diagnostic efficiency for ischemic stroke. • The combination of Tmax > 6.0-s volume, intraplaque hemorrhage, hypertension, and anterograde score can predict the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of patients.