The walls surrounding the cells of all land-based plants provide mechanical support essential for growth and development as well as protection from adverse environmental conditions like biotic and abiotic stress. Composition and structure of plant cell walls can differ markedly between cell types, developmental stages and species. This implies that wall composition and structure are actively modified during biological processes and in response to specific functional requirements. Despite extensive research in the area, our understanding of the regulatory processes controlling active and adaptive modifications of cell wall composition and structure is still limited. One of these regulatory processes is the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism, which monitors and maintains the functional integrity of the plant cell wall during development and interaction with environment. It is an important element in plant pathogen interaction and cell wall plasticity, which seems at least partially responsible for the limited success that targeted manipulation of cell wall metabolism has achieved so far. Here, we provide an overview of the cell wall polysaccharides forming the bulk of plant cell walls in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and the effects their impairment can have. We summarize our current knowledge regarding the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism and discuss that it could be responsible for several of the mutant phenotypes observed.