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Pituitary Hyperplasia, Hormonal Changes and Prolactinoma Development in Males Exposed to Estrogens—An Insight From Translational Studies

Authors
  • Šošić-Jurjević, Branka1
  • Ajdžanović, Vladimir1
  • Miljić, Dragana
  • Trifunović, Svetlana1
  • Filipović, Branko1
  • Stanković, Sanja
  • Bolevich, Sergey2
  • Jakovljević, Vladimir2, 3
  • Milošević, Verica1
  • 1 (V.M.)
  • 2 (V.J.)
  • 3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Mar 16, 2020
Volume
21
Issue
6
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21062024
PMID: 32188093
PMCID: PMC7139613
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Estrogen signaling plays an important role in pituitary development and function. In sensitive rat or mice strains of both sexes, estrogen treatments promote lactotropic cell proliferation and induce the formation of pituitary adenomas (dominantly prolactin or growth-hormone-secreting ones). In male patients receiving estrogen, treatment does not necessarily result in pituitary hyperplasia, hyperprolactinemia or adenoma development. In this review, we comprehensively analyze the mechanisms of estrogen action upon their application in male animal models comparing it with available data in human subjects. Sex-specific molecular targets of estrogen action in lactotropic (PRL) cells are highlighted in the context of their proliferative and secretory activity. In addition, putative effects of estradiol on the cellular/tumor microenvironment and the contribution of postnatal pituitary progenitor/stem cells and transdifferentiation processes to prolactinoma development have been analyzed. Finally, estrogen-induced morphological and hormone-secreting changes in pituitary thyrotropic (TSH) and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells are discussed, as well as the putative role of the thyroid and/or glucocorticoid hormones in prolactinoma development, based on the current scarce literature.

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