BackgroundThe relation between PIM2 and the transcriptional factor NF κβ have been controversial in literature. The significance of PIM2 and NF-κβ genes expression on the incidence of acute leukemia (AML and ALL) and its relevance to the response rate was evaluated. Sixty de novo acute leukemia patients were stratified in 2 groups: 30 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 30 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and compared to 30 sex- and age-matched controls. The expression level of PIM2 and NF κβ genes was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). The patients were followed with clinical examination and complete blood counts.ResultsThe expression level of PIM2 gene was significantly higher in AML patients (P<0.001) compared to the control group. The mean expression level of NF κβ gene was significantly high in AML and ALL patients compared to the healthy control group (P=0.037 and P<0.001; respectively). The overall survival in AML patients was higher in NF κβ gene low expressers compared to high expressers (P=0.047). The number of AML patients who achieved complete remission was significantly higher in PIM2 gene low expressers in comparison to PIM2 gene high expressers (P=0.042).ConclusionPIM2 and NF κβ genes might have a role in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia, poor overall survival, and failure of response to induction therapy.