PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STYLOCHITON BORUMENSIS

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PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STYLOCHITON BORUMENSIS

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  • Abdelrafae Mohamed Makhawi
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Abstract

The dried leaves and roots of Stylochiton borumensis which belong to family Araceae and locally known as (Irg alagrab or Irg moura) was chosen for this study due to its reputed use in traditional medicine for treatment of many diseases specially the roots used to treat scorpion sting. The main objective of the present study is to investigate phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Stylochiton borumensis plant collected from South Kordofan State. The leaves and roots were extracted successively with petroleum ether (40 – 60) °C, Chloroform, Ethanol 80% and Distilled water by using orbital shaker apparatus. Qualitative phytochemical screening were conducted on different plant extracts and showed that they contains high amount of flavonoids, high amount of alkaloids, moderate amount of sterols and triterpenes, high amount of Polyphenol, moderate amount of tannins and low amount of saponins and high amount of coumarins. Quantitative phytochemical screening for S. borumensis was carried out and showed that ethanol 80% had a high percentage of total tannins (50% and 45%) , total phenols (92.72% and 90, 90%) and total flavonoid (70% and 68%) in leaves and roots respectively. Total free amino acids was estimated for S. borumensis and showed that ethanol 80% contained the high percentage of total free amino acids (70.70% and 60.76%) in leaves and roots respectively. Total carbohydrates content was estimated for S. borumensis and the highest percentage was found in ethanol 80% extract (80.55% and 65.76%) in leaves and roots respectively. The approximate analysis of S. borumensis leaves and roots were done and presented that high percentage of crude protein (27.6% and 7.15%) in leaves and roots respectively. And it was observed that the moisture content in the two parts of this plant was not high. The content of heavy of metals in leaves and roots of S.borumensis was estimated and showed that they were in permissible limits when compared with certified references materials. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was done and confirmed the presence of flavonoids, sterols, triterpenoids and coumarin. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated against four standard bacteria and one fungus. The strong antibacterial extract was observed for chloroform roots extract against Bacillus subtilis (18 mm) followed by distilled water roots extracts against Escherichia coli (17 mm). And the strong antifungal activity was obtained from the chloroform leaves extract against Candida albicans (17 mm) followed by ethanol 80% roots extract (16 mm). The antioxidant activity of different plant extracts was determined using the DPPH (2.2 Di (4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-Picryl-hyrazyl) radical scavenging assay. The result showed that two extracts out of eight had antioxidant activity against DPPH. (Petroleum ether leaves extract (60.14%) and chloroform roots extract (65.95%) in comparison with the Standard Gallic acid (77%). The cytotoxicity of S. borumensis leaves and roots extracts was carried out by Brine shrimps lethality test and the results showed that all extracts were nontoxic except petroleum ether leaves extract. Antimicrobial resistance is reported to be on increase due to gene mutations of pathogens causing diseases. It is believed that, new antibiotics with activities and structure different from those in cure use could be found through ethno botanical rout. Stylochiton borumensis was chosen for this study because of their reputation in traditional medicine as antimicrobial agents and usage of different plant parts in cure of many diseases. The crude extracts were subjected to antibacterial assays using the disc diffusion method and the inhibition zones were measured in mm. The different roots and leaves extracts of S. borumensis are active at concentration of 100 mg/ml. But the four leaves extracts are not active against four strains of bacteria at concentration of 6.25 mg/ml. Generally the four roots extracts are more active than leaves extracts against the four species of bacteria. The crude extracts of leaves and roots of Stylochiton borumensis exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against four standard bacteria species and high antifungal activity against Candida albicans this support the traditional use of plant in folk medicine.

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