Two different cyanobacteria, Anabaena CH 1 and CH2, were isolated from Taiwan paddy soils. Both strains can grow well with daily dilution method. Anabaena CH1 shows a blue-green color and Anabaena CH2 a green brownish one. Nitrogenase activity decreased as cultures were transferred from light to dark. When a darkened culture was placed again into the light, nitrogenase activity recovered within two hours, but not in the presence of chloramphenicol. Energy supply for nitrogenase within both strains was different. Nitrogenase activity of Anabaena CH1 was light-dependent and oxygen in heterocyst was exhausted through oxyhydrogen reaction. Except photosynthesis, respiration may be used as energy source for nitrogenase in Anabaena CH2. Respiration was the major one to protect nitrogenase against oxygen.