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Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

Authors
  • Surawski, N C
  • Miljevic, B
  • Ayoko, G A
  • Roberts, B A
  • Elbagir, S
  • Fairfull-Smith, K E
  • Bottle, S E
  • Ristovski, Z D
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Science & Technology
Publisher
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2011
Volume
45
Issue
13
Pages
5498–5505
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/es200388f
PMID: 21627159
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

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